Deep trade agreements are an important institutional infrastructure for regional integration. They reduce business costs and set many rules in which economies are active. If designed effectively, they can improve political cooperation between countries and thus promote international trade and international investment, economic growth and social well-being. Studies by the World Bank Group have shown that Pavcnik (2002) has studied the impact of trade liberalization, which results in the removal of import policy barriers to the productivity level of domestic production facilities in Chile. Pavcnik (2002) highlighted the increasing evolution of plant productivity in response to increased competition in the market due to the increase in the volume of imports. These responses were particularly important in the case of import-competing production sectors. Baldwin and Gu (2004) analyzed the reactions of Canadian production sites to the continued reduction of trade barriers between Canada and the rest of the world over time. They found that the continued removal of trade barriers has prompted more Canadian production sites to participate in export activities. They also found positive feedback effects that have been observed since the increase in export activity towards the productivity level of individual plants. Different scenarios are implemented and discussed when the initial benefits and losses of RTA are significantly changed due to adaptations of agricultural technology and productivity in the import and export countries induced by the ATRs.
The analysis highlights a significant redistribution of benefits and losses between input and export Member States, as well as between consumers and producers. Moreover, the impact of these adjustments on global well-being is not necessarily different at this time or in the absence of regional trading blocs. This result is illustrated by the illustrated scenarios showing the equivalence of these implications with or without rtA. This paper also outlines and examines some analytical considerations for vertical agricultural markets, on which preferential RTA regimes include imports of upstream (primary or medium) and downstream (definitive) products. Regional trade agreements are multiplying and changing their nature. In 1990, 50 trade agreements were in force.