Quentin Skinner argued that several critical modern innovations in contract theory are found in the writings of French Calvinists and Huguenots, whose work was used by writers in the Netherlands who resisted submission to Spain and, later, to Catholics in England. [11] Francisco Suarez (1548-1617), of the Salamanca school, could be considered a former social contract theorist, who theorized natural law by trying to limit the divine right of absolute monarchy. All these groups have been led to articulate conceptions of popular sovereignty through a confederation or social treaty, and all these arguments began with proto-“State of Nature” arguments that the basis of the policy is that everyone is inherently free from submission to any government. Moreover, social security does not address the causes of unemployment and inequality in South Africa; Instead, it is putting increasingly untenable pressure on the public treasury to support an increasing number of social assistance recipients on a static and limited tax base. This issue has become increasingly politicized, reinforcing the importance of social pacts. From Mills` point of view, racism is not just an unfortunate accident of Western democratic and political ideals. It is not that we have a political system that has been perfectly designed and, unfortunately, applied imperfectly. One of the reasons why we remain of the view that the problem of race in the West is relatively superficial, that it does not go down entirely, is the support that the idealized social contract has on our imagination. After Mills, we continue to believe in the myths told by the theory of the social contract – that everyone is equal, that everyone is treated equally before the law, that the founding fathers were committed to equality and freedom for all human beings, etc. One of the objectives of the social contract theory is therefore not to see the real political reality – some people are given the rights and freedoms of individuals in their own right, and the rest is treated as a sub-individual. The Treaty on Race informs the structure of our political systems and lays the groundwork for the continued racial repression of non-whites.

Therefore, we cannot respond by simply injecting more non-whites into the mix of our political institutions, our representation, etc. On the contrary, we must review our policy in general from the point of view of the Treaty on Race and start from where we are, in full knowledge of how our society has been informed by the systematic exclusion of certain people from the political world and the treaty. This “naturalized” characteristic of the race treaty, that is, it tells a story about who we really are and what is contained in our history, is better, according to Mills, because it holds the promise of allowing us to one day truly conform to the norms and values that are at the heart of Western political traditions. While Roussau`s social contract is based on popular sovereignty and not on individual sovereignty, there are other theories supported by individualists, libertarians and anarchists, which involve only negative rights and create only a limited state, if any.