First, some countries maintain quantitative restrictions in their agricultural sectors. Some countries have, as part of their legal commitment to the WTO, introduced a minimum volume of imports of a product for which they offer a (lower) tariff; A higher tariff rate is calculated for additional imports exceeding this minimum volume. They are called tariff quotas (TRQs). Take, for example, the United States, which maintains a QRR for sugar with a quota duty of 0.625 cents per pound and a quota duty of more than 20 times, or 15.36 (raw sugar) or 16.21 cents (refined sugar) per pound. In total, in the United States, in 2013, 4.5% of agricultural products remained subject to quantitative restrictions (through tariff quotas). The TRQ is also important for agriculture in a number of other high-income economies: 11.3% of agricultural products in the EU were still TRQs, 9.5% in Canada and 6.2% in Japan (WTO, 2014). While the President of the United States could not agree to reduce import duties on Brazilian alcohol, he signed a Memorandum of Understanding with the country`s President Lula on cooperation in the research and development of next-generation biofuel technology. The agreement also included the aim of promoting cooperation with third countries to encourage private sector investment in biotuels. The strategy will begin with Central America and the Caribbean. The agreement also set itself the goal of creating a global biofuels market, with a definition of rules and technical rules. To this end, the two countries will work together in the International Biofuels Forum, which also includes India, China, South Africa and the European Union (see Chart 6.17). Finally, in 2004, the largest quota system of the last half century, the Multifibre Regime (MFA), which we deal with in Section 4, was dismantled.

A number of studies have looked at different aspects of macro-financial assistance (Brambilla et al., 2010); Harrigan and Barrows, 2009; Dean, 1995; Khandelwal et al., 2013), and especially the effects of its unfolding. Many U.S.-based companies rely on production sites outside the country to produce their products. Because of import quotas, some of these companies cannot recover their own products in the United States. While these companies lobby Congress to change what they see as an unfair practice, their opposition says it is the price to pay for distributing jobs to foreign countries. Unlike quotas, TRQ regulations do not limit the amount of imported products. [2] The “quota” is supplemented by an “a-quota” commitment that does not limit the quantity or value of an imported product, but applies a different, normally higher, duty to that specific product. Imports face this higher rate as soon as the quota or quota is reached or when a “quota system” requirement is not met. [3] As U.S. production grew despite relatively low consumption, the Agriculture Act 2002 was shifted from import management to marketing by domestic producers.